The island of Ibiza can be roughly divided into four landscape zones: the north or steep coast, forests, cultivated land and farmland, beaches and bays.
The north coast is largely protected. The area ranges from the high plateau at Santa Agnès to the north-east tip of the island to Punta Grossa near Cala San Vicente. This region is sparsely populated. There are few localities and hardly accessible beaches and therefore very little tourism.
In the extensive evergreen pine forests of these landscapes, which are often interspersed with juniper bushes, rosemary, thyme and other wild herbs there grow also the rare holm oak, orchids and wild gladiolus.
On the coasts, beaches and bays and in wetlands such as Ses Salines, the water basins for salt extraction and Ses Feixes, the allotment garden zones around Ibiza Town, which were probably created by the Moors in the 11th century and are a UNESCO World Heritage Site the plants are particularly resistant to salt water. These wetlands are also the breeding grounds for many water birds. A flamingo colony lives all year round in the old salt basin of Ses Salines. Kestrels, ospreys and many other bird species such as seagulls, swallows, herons, cormorants and stilt also live in this area.
The culture and farming country of Ibiza is characterized primarily by a form of three-field farming, which is already known from the Middle Ages. Usually wheat, barley or oats are planted in these fields. Typically, almond, olive, carob and fig trees were cultivated in between.
On the edges of the often terraced fields, which were bordered with stone walls in dry construction, wild plants and vines grow for the farm wine. Corn poppy, margarite, spicy yarrow, wild fennel and wild asparagus.
In areas with groundwater or deep wells like San Antonio, fruits and vegetables are planted, especially melons, tomatoes, grapes, citrus fruits, but also legumes such as beans, lentils or peas.
Fruit trees with cherries, peaches, apricots, mangoes or avocados grow around Santa Gertrudis, a zone that is considered as fertile as the large plain in front of San Miguel.
The valley of San Mateo is known for its viticulture.
In addition to the Podenco Ibicenco, a dog breed (Pharaoh dog) introduced by the Phoenicians in Ibiza, there are a number of other indigenous animals in Ibiza. For example, the farm chicken Pollo payes, the Ibizan sheep, a wild rabbit and the pityuse lizard.